Review of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma
Mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) is a rare subtype of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that remains incurable with standard therapy. Patients typically require multiple lines of therapy, and those with relapsed or refractory (r/r) disease have a very poor prognosis. The Bruton tyrosine kinase (btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has proven to be an effective agent for patients with r/r mcl. Although usually well tolerated, ibrutinib can be associated with unique toxicities, requiring discontinuation in some patients. Effective and well-tolerated alternatives to ibrutinib for patients with r/r mcl are therefore needed. Novel btk inhibitors such as acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, and tirabrutinib are designed to improve on the safety and efficacy of first-generation btk inhibitors such as ibrutinib. Data from single-arm clinical trials suggest that, compared with ibrutinib, second-generation btk inhibitors have comparable efficacy and might have a more favourable toxicity profile. Those newer btk inhibitors might therefore provide a viable treatment option for patients with r/r mcl.