Metastatic colorectal cancer: therapeutic options for treating refractory disease

A. Parmar, K. K.W. Chan, Y.J. Ko


Therapeutic options for chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mcrc) have significantly expanded since 2009. The oral targeted therapies regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil have been established to be efficacious and safe in patients with mcrc who have progressed beyond 2 or more lines of chemotherapy. Evidence for the use of immunotherapy in a subgroup of this patient population is also encouraging, particularly in patients with mcrc that exhibits high microsatellite instability or deficient mismatch repair. Those significant advances have led to Health Canada approval of 3 novel therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with chemorefractory mcrc. However, the limited clinical efficacy of those treatments underscores the need for ongoing development of systemic therapy options for this unique cohort of patients. Here, we review the current and emerging treatment landscape for chemorefractory mcrc.


Colorectal cancer; metastatic; targeted therapy; immunotherapy; treatment-refractory disease

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ISSN: 1198-0052 (Print) ISSN: 1718-7729 (Online)